Surah Ra’ad 13: 38
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِّن قَبْلِكَ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَذُرِّيَّةً وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأْتِيَ بِآيَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ كِتَابٌ
We did send apostles before thee, and appointed for them wives and children: and it was never the part of an apostle to bring a sign except as Allah permitted (or commanded). For each period is a Book (revealed).
Et Nous avons certes envoyé avant toi des messagers, et leur avons donné des épouses et des descendants. Et il n’appartient pas à un Messager d’apporter un miracle, si ce n’est qu’avec la permission d’Allah. Chaque échéance a son terme prescrit.
يَمْحُو اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ
Allah doth blot out or confirm what He pleaseth: with Him is the Mother of the Book.
Allah efface ou confirme ce qu’Il veut en l’Ecriture primordiale est auprès de Lui.
وَإِن مَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ
Whether We shall show thee (within thy life-time) part of what we promised them or take to ourselves thy soul (before it is all accomplished),- thy duty is to make (the Message) reach them: it is our part to call them to account.
Que Nous te fassions voir une partie de ce dont Nous les menaçons, ou que Nous te fassions mourir (avant cela), ton devoir est seulement la communication du message, et le règlement de compte sera à Nous.
BACKGROUND: These ayahs have three main messages: Taqdeer, Dua, and the deliverance of the Message of Tawheed with the understanding that all accountability is by Allah.
TAFSEER BY DR. FARHAT HASHMI
Allah Subhanawataala has the main book or the Mother of all books; The Luh Mahfooz He Subhanawataaala can change it or confirm it. E.g. He changed some of the rules for Rasoolallah’s Ummah compared to past rules brought by His messengers.
He can increase or decrease changes in His book (Luh Mahfooz) as He deems fit.
Which book is mentioned here? (ayah 39) Is this the Na’ama Aamaal or the Taqdeer? Because He has the mother of all Books. This give us the span of Allah’s power. He has rules for all times and All Ummahs.
Taqdeer is changed with dua.
In another hadith:
We know that the power is Dua is immense, the Dua may be rising and a calamity may be descending, thus if the dua is strong, then when it meets the rising Dua, there is a tussle for power of implementation, thus which ever is stronger, prevails. If the Dua is strong, the calamity is turned around and if the Dua is weak or in adequately made then calamity prevails.
Allah Subhanawataala has the original book and he can make whatever changes he wants to. (Dua is asking Allah Subhanawataala to change one’s taqdeer and dua does affect taqdeer) .
Sila Rahmi increases life
Sins decrease our Rizq, we may be about to get something but we do disobedience and He turns His face away.
- Everything is with Allah we need to ask Him by making Dua to change our Taqdeer.
- Sadaqa is rad-e Bala, it pushes calamities away.
Thus Allah Subhanawataala’s message to Prophet Muhammad is:
If We (Allah Subhanawataala) show you (Prophet Muhammad pbuh) that azaab (Punishment) which we have promised the disbelievers inyour lifetime or do it after you die, in both case your (Prophet Muhammad pbuh) responsibility is to give the message and Ours (Allah Subhanawataala) is to check accountability.
ADVICE FOR A DAEE: DO NOT WAIT FOR TOMORROW!
Thus a Daee must continue her work, no matter what the results and whether the environment is advantageous or not, do not wait for times to become advantageous, just continue to give the message and leave the results to Allah Subhanawataala.
Allah Subhanawataala reiterates this message in Surah Ghashiya (88)
فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُذَكِّرٌ
Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish.
لَّسْتَ عَلَيْهِم بِمُصَيْطِرٍ
Thou art not one to manage (men’s) affairs.
إِلَّا مَن تَوَلَّىٰ وَكَفَرَ
But if any turn away and reject Allah,-
فَيُعَذِّبُهُ اللَّهُ الْعَذَابَ الْأَكْبَرَ
Allah will punish him with a mighty Punishment.
My humble take on this:
- Our Taqdeer is written in His book (Luh Mahfooz) but if he so wishes he can change it
- How and why would Allah Subhanawataala change our taqdeer? Only if we make sincere Dua, which reflects the etiquette, respect and full protocol and adaab of Dua.
- Calamities in this life can be warded off with Dua and Sadaqa
- The disobedience of Allah causes Him to turn away from us. This may be reflected in the decrease in our Rizq in this dunya.
- Allah’s Azaab (Punishment) is promised to those who deny the existence and Unity of God Almighty and He will and can show it at anytime.
- The instructions to the Messenger (pbuh) and all those who come after him (Pbuh) is to give the Message of Allah to ……….go ahead and GIVE the message without waiting or hesitating even if they do not see an immediate effect, or if times are difficult or unfriendly.
- Allah Subhanawataala Himself will do the accountability of the actions of each one of us after we received His message.
Supplication: Please keep me in your duas!!!
وَقَد مَكَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبلِهِم فَلِلَّهِ ٱلمَكرُ جَمِيعًا يَعلَمُ مَا تَكسِبُ كُلُّ نَفسٍ وَسَيَعلَمُ ٱلكُفَّـرُ لِمَن عُقبَى ٱلدَّارِ (٤٢)
Those before them did (also) devise plots; but in all things the master planning is Allah’s. He knoweth the doings of every soul: and soon will the Unbelievers know who gets home in the End. (42)
People of the past did trickery with their messengers, but Allah is the master planner.
Allah knows what each soul has earned, we are not aware of the details of what we have done and what weight do they carry. But Allah Subhnawaata’ala knows the details of each persons efforts. The kuffar will know who will have a good end.
DUA AND TAQDEER
Dua of the Sahaba:
The Sahaba used to worry about their taqdeer and did not know where they were going to end, but knew without a doubt of the power of Allah Subhanawataala and used to make this dua:
“O Allah if you have written our name in the losers then please erase it from that list and place it in the people who are the winners in those with a happy end (Khush Kismet)) and if you have written our name in the winners then keep us steadfast worthy of our place on that list.”
Umar RA has been reported to cry while making this dua, in his tawaf around the Kaaba:
“O Allah, If you have written loss (badbakht) and sin for me, then please erase it because you can erase what you want and keep whatsoever you want. You have the Loh e Mahfooz , please change my badbakhti to saadat “
One should never give up hope in Allahs power.
Thus the message to us from Allah Subhanawataala is that every thing is with Allah so the basis of this is to submit to his power and oneness in our heart and with our actions all the time, this includes active tawheed as well as wijdani tawheed.